Cannabis and CBD-related Application Notes

 

This section is organized by analysis type, select from:



Potency

Analysis of Cannabinoids in Hemp using QuEChERS Extraction, SpinFiltr dSPE Cleanup and LC-MS/MS Detection

UCT Partner logoThis application note outlines the methodology of the simultaneous analysis of three cannabinoids in hemp with one QuEChERS extraction procedure.

Click here to read the app note.


 

 



A Peer-Reviewed Workflow for the Analysis of Cannabis-Infused Chocolates

Restek LogoThe successful analysis of cannabis-infused products depends on implementing optimized workflows that are tuned specifically to the matrix and analytes of interest. With this in mind, Restek developed a simple approach for the determination of pesticides, mycotoxins, and cannabinoids in chocolate samples.

Briefly, analytes were extracted from 0.5 g of pulverized chocolate using 3 mL of organic solvent. For the analysis of pesticides and mycotoxins, clean-up steps employing a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and dispersive solid-phase extraction sorbents were used. Gas chromatography amenable pesticides were analyzed using low-pressure GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry which allowed for a total method run of 12 min. For the determination of cannabinoids, a dilution of the original organic extract collected for pesticides and mycotoxins analysis (prior to any clean-up step) was used. Excellent results in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision were obtained for all target analytes.

Click here to view the full article.
 

Is LC-MS the Future of Cannabinoid Potency Testing?

Restek LogoPotency testing is usually run by LC-UV because it is relatively inexpensive and requires minimal training, but it lacks sensitivity and is limited by the need to resolve all analytes. LC-MS is a much more powerful alternative, and this method allows 21 cannabinoids to be determined, including isobaric compounds, in just 9 minutes.

Click here for more information.
Click here to request a quote on the Raptor ARC-18 HPLC column listed in the above method.

 

 

Rugged Isocratic LC-UV Method for the Analysis of 16 Cannabinoids in Hemp and Cannabis Samples

With the mounting interest in hemp and cannabis products for medicinal and recreational use around the world, the need for suitable analytical methods to identify and determine the concentration of cannabinoids is essential for ensuring consumer safety. Traditional analyses for measuring the potency of cannabinoids in cannabis and hemp samples have focused mainly on 5 primary analytes: THC, THC-A, CBD, CBD-A, and CBN. As the industry continues to expand and evolve, more attention is being directed toward additional, although less prevalent, cannabinoids that have been shown to exhibit physiological effects. Thus, simple yet selective analytical methodologies are needed to adequately separate and identify a wide range of cannabinoids present in the hemp and cannabis products which exist on the market, including plant products, edibles, oils, topicals and extracts.

Click here for more information.

 

Hamilton – Separation of 8 Cannabinoids

With the recent legalization of both medicinal and recreational marijuana in the United States, analysis of individual cannabinoids has captured the public’s interest at a new level. As such, many new cannabis products are now available, i.e., edibles, vaporizers, and extracts to name a few. The increased marketability
of the product has incited consumers to take a greater interest in the quality and craft ability of the products
being sold. Through the quantification of individual cannabinoids, the consumer can make an informed decision
about the possible effects they could expect from the products they purchase. Therefore, the need for accurate,
robust, and affordable analysis tools are of the upmost importance.

Click here for more information.

 

Cannabinoid Separations and Analyses on 2 different YMC C18 columns

  • YMC Triart C18 and Meteoric Core C18 columns are both cutting edge technologies. This application note shows how Meteoric Core or Triart can be used to provide either high speed separation with minimal additional back pressure, or a fully scalable suite of methods from UHPLC through standard HPLC to preparative LC methods.

    Click here to view the abstract.

 

  • TriArt C18 Columns for Cannabis Potency Testing Analyses - Available in UHPLC/MS through analytical HPLC to preparative columns (1.9µm to 50µm particle diameters).  Consistent particle and phase chemistry ensures easy scaling without method redevelopment .  This application shows separation on a 250 x 4.6mm column.  It can easily be scaled to any of the other column dimensions.

    Click here to view the abstract.
    Click here for more information on the TriArt C18.

 

SIL HD and nano-SIL HD TLC Plates for Fast and Simple
Screening of Plant or Edibles for Cannabinoid Profiles

  • Fast screening of plant extracts for cannabinoid profiles
  • Single use plates
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) provides fast, simple screening of plants or edibles for cannabinoid profiles
    • Separate the four primary cannabinoids
    • Allow general assessment of relative concentrations of cannabinoids
    • Can detect the presence of food or non-target plant compounds in samples before GC or HPLC runs
    • New SIL HD plates provide sharper, higher contrast developed plates
    • Lower levels of detection and grater confidence in your results

Click here for the Separation of Marijuana Compounds App Note.
Click here to read more on SIL HD and nano-SIL HD TLC Plates
.

 

Determination of 35 Pesticides and 3 Cannabinoids in Marijuana Edibles

Many cannabis producers and forensic toxicology labs are looking for fast, reliable and cost-effective methods to determine cannabis potency and pesticides in edibles.  All scientists agree that uniform testing policies and procedures need to be established as soon as possible and that overall sample clean-up is the main issue within these analyses.
 
Click here to read the full report.

 

 

Gradient HPLC-UV Method for Cannabinoid Profiling

Historically, GC/MS has been used for the separation and quantification of cannabinoids and other compounds of interest in cannabis analyses. With GC, though, care must be taken to avoid decarboxylation of acidic species during the heated injection. HPLC methods permit simpler sample preparation and derivatization steps and have become the preferred approaches to cannabis potency analysis. In general, all approaches to HPLC method development look to balance
several elements, among which are the ultimate goals of the analysis, resolution of target compounds
and potential interferences, speed, and assay robustness.

This application note examines the use of buffers and compares methanol, acetonitrile and
methanol-acetonitrile mixes in the mobile phase to achieve these goals.

Click here to read this informative article.

 

Quantitative LC-UV Method for CBD in Topicals with Simplified Extraction of Lotions, Balms, and Creams

A universal extraction method has been developed for the LC-UV analysis of cannabidiol (CBD) in infused lotions, balms, and creams. The method was evaluated using fortified samples with percent recoveries ranging from 90.2–108%. Linearity was evaluated from 2–300 ppm and returned an R2 value of 0.9997. The sample preparation methods developed here produce clean extracts and reliable results. The LC-UV analysis was conducted using a Raptor ARC-18
(150 mm x 4.6 mm ID x 2.7 µm) column with a Raptor ARC-18 EXP guard column cartridge.
Isocratic mobile phase conditions were used for a total run time of five minutes per sample.

Click here for more information.

 

Add Vitamin E Acetate Screening to Your Cannabinoids Potency Method

Linked to recent vaping deaths, vitamin E acetate is emerging as a compound of concern for the cannabis industry. Here, we share a modified cannabinoids analysis that incorporates vitamin E acetate so that labs can screen for it within an existing potency test.

Click here for more information.

 

Increase Profits with This Fast, Low-Solvent Use Cannabinoids Analysis

Suitable for high-throughput cannabis testing labs, this LC-UV method reliably separates 19 cannabinoids in a quick 10-minute analysis. Using only 3 mL of acetonitrile per run, labs can significantly decrease solvent use and the associated costs by adopting this procedure.

Click here for more information.

 

SFC-MS Separation of Cannabinoid Enantiomers

Regis’ chiral HPLC Whelk-O® 1 columns allow SFC-MS separation of cannabinoid enantiomers; including naturally occurring enantiomers (e.g. Cannabichromene (CBC) and those occurring from synthetic production (e.g. Δ9-THC).

Click here for more information.

 

Cannabinoid Profiling is a high-demand test that can be improved by increasing speed, expanding analyte lists, and reducing costs.

Click here for an application describing Fast, Low-Solvent Analysis of Cannabinoids Increases Lab Productivity and Decreases Solvent Costs.

 

High-Throughput Analysis of Cannabinoids by LC-UV

As the cannabis market grows, interest in more detailed analysis of cannabinoid profiles is expanding because more comprehensive data can be used for strain identification as well as to ensure more accurate potency testing.

Click here for more information.

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Pesticides

A Peer-Reviewed Workflow for the Analysis of Cannabis-Infused Chocolates

Restek LogoThe successful analysis of cannabis-infused products depends on implementing optimized workflows that are tuned specifically to the matrix and analytes of interest. With this in mind, Restek developed a simple approach for the determination of pesticides, mycotoxins, and cannabinoids in chocolate samples.

Briefly, analytes were extracted from 0.5 g of pulverized chocolate using 3 mL of organic solvent. For the analysis of pesticides and mycotoxins, clean-up steps employing a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and dispersive solid-phase extraction sorbents were used. Gas chromatography amenable pesticides were analyzed using low-pressure GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry which allowed for a total method run of 12 min. For the determination of cannabinoids, a dilution of the original organic extract collected for pesticides and mycotoxins analysis (prior to any clean-up step) was used. Excellent results in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision were obtained for all target analytes.

Click here to view the full article.


Analysis of the California List of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Edibles

Regulations that permit the use of different forms of cannabis demand effective and reliable analytical strategies to ensure the safety of cannabis users. Pesticide content is one of the main parameters tested in cannabis and cannabis-derived products due to the risks that these compounds pose for human health. However, the main challenges associated with pesticide testing rely on the broad range of physicochemical properties of these compounds, the low action
levels requested by the regulations, and the complexity and diversity of matrices to be analyzed.
In this video, sample preparation and instrumental strategies for the accurate quantitation of the
California list of pesticides and mycotoxins in cannabis products is discussed.

Click here for more information.
Click here for a poster detailing the Analysis of the California list of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Edibles.

 

Analysis of 47 Pesticides in Cannabis for High-throughput analysis: Traditional dSPE vs. Positive Pressure dSPE in a 96-well plate

Cannabis markets are relatively new and vary significantly when it comes to the regulation of pesticides and mycotoxins, as well as uniform testing methods for potency.  Quality control methods are necessary to ensure product safety and appropriate cannabinoid profiling.  While several methods are being investigated to determine the best way to evaluate these compounds of interest, it is important to keep in mind that these methods need to be scalable and also able to be used for high throughput analyses.  This study examines using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction approach coupled with either traditional dSPE clean-up versus UCT’s dSPE clean-up in well-plate format and Hamilton’s MPE2 Positive Pressure Extraction/Evaporation Module for the analysis of 47 pesticides in marijuana. We demonstrate that for most compounds investigated, the high throughput clean-up method exhibits comparable results to traditional dSPE clean-up.

Click here for the full report.

 

Determination of 35 Pesticides and 3 Cannabinoids in Marijuana Edibles

Many cannabis producers and forensic toxicology labs are looking for fast, reliable and cost-effective methods to determine cannabis potency and pesticides in edibles.  All scientists agree that uniform testing policies and procedures need to be established as soon as possible and that overall sample clean-up is the main issue within these analyses.
 
Click here to read the full report.





The Analysis of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Cannabis Brownies

Government regulations require the cannabis industry to test edible products for an extensive list of pesticides and mycotoxins. Here, an effective workflow for this complex analysis was developed in brownies, and optimization strategies are detailed in order to provide a starting point for similar matrices. Both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were employed and excellent results for LOQ, linearity, accuracy, and precision were attained for all the target compounds.

Click here to view the Analysis of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Cannabis Brownies.


High-Quality Analysis of Pesticides in Cannabis (using QuEChERS, Cartridge SPE Cleanup, and GCxGC-TOFMS)

  • Quickly and effectively extract medical marijuana samples for pesticide analysis.
  • Cartridge SPE cleanup of dirty extracts improves GC inlet and column lifetimes.
  • Selective GC columns increase accuracy of pesticide determinations for complex samples.

Click here to view the High-Quality Analysis of Pesticides in Cannabis

 

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Mycotoxins

Analysis of Mycotoxins in Cannabis using HPLC with Photochemical Derivatization and Fluorescence Detection

Pickering Laboratories has demonstrated that the simultaneous analysis of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Cannabis and different types of Cannabis-containing products can be successfully accomplished by HPLC with photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. Sample preparation using a single immunoaffinity cleanup column, utilizing Mycotoxin selective antibodies, allows for eliminating interferences and concentrating Mycotoxins to increase the sensitivity of analysis. The same method can be used for the analysis of hemp plant material and extracts and hemp-containing products. This approach has a proven performance for many commodities and is the basis of AOAC 2008.02, the official method for analysis of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Ginseng and Ginger.

 

Mycotoxin Analysis Using Photochemical Derivatization

 

HPLC methods offer the perfect approach to analyze Mycotoxins in Cannabis and Cannabis products. Separation of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 as well as Ochratoxin A is easily accomplished on a reversed-phase column and the addition of a photochemical reactor increases sensitivity of detection for Aflatoxins B1 and G1.

Pickering Laboratories has demonstrated that the simultaneous analysis of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Cannabis and different types of Cannabis-containing products can be successfully accomplished by HPLC with photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. 

Click here for more information.
 

A Peer-Reviewed Workflow for the Analysis of Cannabis-Infused Chocolates

Restek LogoThe successful analysis of cannabis-infused products depends on implementing optimized workflows that are tuned specifically to the matrix and analytes of interest. With this in mind, Restek developed a simple approach for the determination of pesticides, mycotoxins, and cannabinoids in chocolate samples.

Briefly, analytes were extracted from 0.5 g of pulverized chocolate using 3 mL of organic solvent. For the analysis of pesticides and mycotoxins, clean-up steps employing a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and dispersive solid-phase extraction sorbents were used. Gas chromatography amenable pesticides were analyzed using low-pressure GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry which allowed for a total method run of 12 min. For the determination of cannabinoids, a dilution of the original organic extract collected for pesticides and mycotoxins analysis (prior to any clean-up step) was used. Excellent results in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision were obtained for all target analytes.

Click here to view the full article.
 

Analysis of the California List of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Edibles

Regulations that permit the use of different forms of cannabis demand effective and reliable analytical strategies to ensure the safety of cannabis users. Pesticide content is one of the main parameters tested in cannabis and cannabis-derived products due to the risks that these compounds pose for human health. However, the main challenges associated with pesticide testing rely on the broad range of physicochemical properties of these compounds, the low action
levels requested by the regulations, and the complexity and diversity of matrices to be analyzed.
In this video, sample preparation and instrumental strategies for the accurate quantitation of the
California list of pesticides and mycotoxins in cannabis products is discussed.

Click here for more information.
Click here for a poster detailing the Analysis of the California list of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Edibles.

 

The Analysis of Mycotoxins and Pesticides in Cannabis Brownies

Government regulations require the cannabis industry to test edible products for an extensive list of pesticides and mycotoxins. Here, an effective workflow for this complex analysis was developed in brownies, and optimization strategies are detailed in order to provide a starting point for similar matrices. Both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were employed and excellent results for LOQ, linearity, accuracy, and precision were attained for all the target compounds.

Click here to view the Analysis of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Cannabis Brownies.

 

High-Throughput Analysis of Mycotoxins in Cannabis CBD Oil Pairs Simplified Cleanup with LC-MS/MS Sensitivity

Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are an emerging concern in the cannabis industry as these secondary fungal metabolites can cause disease and death if consumed. Crops are susceptible to fungal growth from seed through storage, so there are many opportunities for contamination to occur. As a result, a growing need is emerging for testing to detect the presence of mycotoxins in both raw plant materials and finished cannabis products in order to protect consumer health and safety. The analysis of mycotoxins in cannabis oils is particularly challenging because the lipids in the sample can contribute isobaric matrix interferences in addition to general ion suppression that can reduce accuracy, particularly at low levels.

Click here for more information.

 

The Analysis of Mycotoxins in CBD Oils by LC-MS/MS

Fungi that readily colonize crops such as cannabis are capable of producing secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins that can cause disease and death in humans.  The two primary types of mycotoxins associated with cannabis are aflatoxins and ochratoxins.

Crops are susceptible to contamination from seed through storage with most effort focused on mitigation during harvest and storage.  The thermal stability of mycotoxins presents a particular challenge as the likelihood is high that existing crop contamination will persist and concentrate during processing into oil and extracts causing levels to rise above allowable limits.
 
Click here to view the presentation first shown at ASMS 2019.

 

QuEChERS Method for the Determination of Mycotoxins

CrossTOX® is a low cost QuEChERS SPE Column for the Analysis of 16 Mycotoxins in one run!

  • Many labs analyze mycotoxins using a dilute-and-shoot method that is labour intensive and slow.
  • CrossTOX® improves these analyses by using a QuEChERS-based procedure that provides a cleaner extract than the syringe filter used in the dilute-and-shoot method (the syringe filter is no longer needed when using CrossTOX®)
  • Because the extract is cleaner, CrossTOX® allows a higher number of sample injections to be made before the LC-MS/MS needs to be cleaned or maintained.  That means your LC-MS/MS is running more and being serviced and cleaned less.
  • CrossTOX® saves significant cost per sample as much less internal standard is required.

Click here for additional information comparing CrossTOX® to dilute and shoot.

For even more information, click here.

 

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Terpenes and Aroma

Determination of Flavonoids in Hemp by Reversed-Phase HPLC

As consumers of cannabis become more aware of the full capacity of the plant, analysis of the entourage compounds associated with the various strains should become commonplace. In an effort to provide the end user with a more complete experience, Hamilton Company has developed a
method to confirm the 7 most common flavonoids found in cannabis.

Click here to view the article.

 

Flavonoids...Will They Become the Next Routine Cannabis Test?

Will flavonoids be the next routine test for cannabis labs? Check out Restek’s LC-MS/MS method for these important contributors to flavor and aroma profiles. Excellent recoveries were obtained for 19 flavonoids in hemp flowers in a fast, 7-minute analysis. 

Click here to view the article.

 

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Other

Fast 3-Minute, Standalone Vitamin E Acetate Analysis for Cannabis Labs

Adding vitamin E acetate to a potency analysis using the method above helps labs diversify their testing services within a single workflow. But, if speed is more important to you than simplification, we also developed this 3-minute analysis for vitamin E acetate alone.

Click here for more information.

 

Thermal Analysis of CBD oil using a CDS Model 6150 Pyroprobe

With promise for treating a variety of ailments, cannabidiol (CBD oil) derived from the cannabis plant, has a growing interest in the pharmaceutical industry. The non-intoxicating extract is being credited with helping to treat many medical issues. Cut with hemp oil prior to use, it is a complex natural product, containing many volatile and non-volatile constituents. Successive thermal treatments using the Pyroprobe can clarify ingredients in natural materials such as CBD oil by separating ingredients based on their volatility, then pyrolyzing the non-volatile portion, like the oil itself.

Click here for more information.

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